Ways of Seeing — the take away

In Design Theory on March 24, 2010 at 2:12 am

In the book Ways of Seeing, John Berger took his readers through the history of visual art, from classic paintings to modern advertisements. Combining written and pictorial essays, Berger discussed the artists’ or designers’ intentions behind their work, and the meanings of the paintings and ads to the audience. Early in the book, he discussed how the meanings of paintings change with time because culture and values are different. However, through the paintings, we can get a glimpse of what life was like during those times. He also discussed how paintings can be interpreted in all different directions, especially when they are presented without caption or when parts of the paintings are taken out of context.

In chapters three to five of the book, the author discussed how owners of oil paintings to show off their material possessions, including women. He presented the idea by displaying a large number of paintings with nude women. He talked about how women were historically viewed as objects, and, therefore, they viewed themselves as objects as well. This statement seems to be as accurate today as it was in ancient time. The difference is that, historically, women exposed themselves to succumb to the superiority of men; now, on the other hand, they do is as a voluntary act to seduce the opposite sex.

Toward the latter part of the book, Berger switched his focus to modern advertisements. In chapter seven, he explored billboards, print ads and window displays, and compared them to oil paintings. What he found was that designers of today employ the same methods that famous painters did — they design their work to depict material possessions and paint fantasy worlds. These fantasy worlds create desires and convince the audience that the product featured will enhance their dissatisfied lives once they buy it. This method has worked marvelously in our world of commerce. It created enormous wealth for a selected few. However, it has also destroyed nature.

The focus of today’s society is constantly changing, and graphic designers have great influence in what the focus may be. It is the graphic design community’s responsibility to steer the public’s focus onto the appropriate subjects, such as environment conservation. For those of us who live in the world of over-abundance, it is time to dedicate our energy and resources to help protect the delicate nature, truly create a better world.

Personal Aesthetics

In Applied Design on March 24, 2010 at 2:11 am

As I explored my personal aesthetics, minimalism came to mind. Every object that I put on the page has a purpose, and everything is carefully positioned with planned relationships with the rest to tell a story. My design style is classy yet contemporary. I find inspirations mostly in architecture and interior décor, but also in nature. The clean lines and structures found in buildings and contemporary European furniture heavily influence my design style. I also study other people’s design work to broaden my horizon and to train my brain to think in different directions. Due to my background, I thrive to bridge the gap sometimes found between beautiful designs and production. I keep the technical aspects in mind as I layout my work to make sure that the end product reflects my intentions.

Gestalt Definition

In Design Theory on March 18, 2010 at 8:38 pm

The Laws of Gestalt originated from the field of psychology. After a little research, I found a dictionary definition — “A physical, biological, psychological, or symbolic configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that its properties cannot be derived from a simple summation of its parts” (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/gestalt). Then, I found that Shippensburg University’s website states “Gestalt psychology is based on the observation that we often experience things that are not a part of our simple sensations” (http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/gestalt.html). For a more design-related definition, I found “Gestalt psychology attempts to understand psychological phenomena by viewing them as organized and structured wholes rather than the sum of their constituent parts” (http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/gestalt_principles_of_form_perception.html). While these all sound somewhat completed, gestalt can be defined as the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt laws or principles explain how human beings form perceptions with the help of past experiences and, therefore, what we perceive can be different from reality.

Some of the more important gestalt principles include:

  • Similarity — Similar objects are often perceived as a group.
  • Continuation — Continuation occurs when the human eyes follow the direction from one object to another, perceiving separate objects as one.
  • Closure — When gaps appear between shapes, people tend to mentally close those gaps and form a perception of a whole object.
  • Proximity — Objects placed close together are often perceived as a group.
  • Figure and Ground — Different shapes that are formed by the foreground (figure) and background (ground).

I illustrated these principles below:

Gestalt Principles

Figure and Ground

Gestalt - figure and ground


Gestalt - closure


Gestalt - continuation


Gestalt - proximity


Gestalt - similarity